Genetics: Longevity Assurance
The fact that similar pathways regulate longevity in organisms as diverse as flies and mice raises the possibility that humans also possess such a pathway. If they do, there will be an opportunity to develop small compounds that can alter this pathway and possibly delay the onset of age-associated diseases. The greatest obstacle to developing any drug that delays aging is the great length of time it will take to determine its efficacy. At least the discovery that single gene mutations can dramatically increase longevity makes it feasible that one day such drugs will be developed.
DAVID A. SINCLAIR
See also CELLULAR AGING; CENTENARIANS; GENETICS: GENE EXPRESSION; LONGEVITY: SELECTION; MOLECULAR THERAPY; NUTRITION: CALORIC RESTRICTION; ROUNDWORMS: CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS; THEORIES OF BIOLOGICAL AGING: DISPOSABLE SOMA; YEAST.
BARTKE, A.; COSCHIGANO, K.; KOPCHICK, J.; CHANDRASHEKAR, V.; MATTISON, J.; KINNEY, B.; and HAUCK, S. "Genes That Prolong Life: Relationships of Growth Hormone and Growth to Aging and Life Span." Journal of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 56, no. 8 (2001): B340–B349.
BRAECKMAN, B. P.; HOUTHOOFD, K.; and VANFLETEREN, J. R. "Insulin-like Signaling, Metabolism, Stress Resistance and Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans." Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 122, no. 7 (2001): 673–693.
COURNIL, A., and KIRKWOOD, T. B. "If You Would Live Long, Choose Your Parents Well." Trends in Genetics 17, no. 5 (2001): 233–235.
DEFOSSEZ, P. A.; LIN, S. J.; and MCNABB, D. S. "Sound Silencing: The Sir2 Protein and Cellular Senescence." Bioessays 23, no. 4 (2001): 327–332.
GEMS, D., and PARTRIDGE, L. "Insulin/Igf Signalling and Ageing: Seeing the Bigger Picture." Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 11, no. 3 (2001): 287–292.
GERDES, L. U.; JEUNE, B.; RANBERG, K. A.; NYBO, H.; and VAUPEL, J. W. "Estimation of Apolipoprotein E Genotype-Specific Relative Mortality Risks from the Distribution of Genotypes in Centenarians and Middle-Aged Men: Apolipoprotein E Gene Is a 'Frailty Gene,' Not a 'Longevity Gene'." Genetic Epidemiology 19, no. 3 (2000): 202–210.
KAEBERLEIN, M.; MCVEY, M.; and GUARENTE, L. "The Sir2/3/4 Complex and Sir2 Alone Promote Longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Two Different Mechanisms." Genes and Development 13, no. 19 (1999): 2570–2580.
KENYON, C. "A Conserved Regulatory Mechanism for Aging." Cell 105 (2001): 165–168.
KIRKWOOD, T. B., and HOLLIDAY, R. "The Evolution of Ageing and Longevity." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 205, no. 1161 (1979): 531–546.
KIRKWOOD, T. B.; KAPAHI, P.; and SHANLEY, D. P. "Evolution, Stress, and Longevity." Journal of Anatomy 197, pt. 4 (2000): 587–590.
LONGO, V. D. "Mutations in Signal Transduction Proteins Increase Stress Resistance and Longevity in Yeast, Nematodes, Fruit Flies, and Mammalian Neuronal Cells." Neurobiology of Aging 20, no. 5 (1999): 479–486.
MARTIN, G. M.; AUSTAD, S. N.; and JOHNSON, T. E. "Genetic Analysis of Ageing: Role of Oxidative Damage and Environmental Stresses." Nature Genetics 13, no. 1 (1996): 25–34.
MIGLIACCIO, E.; GIORGIO, M.; MELE, S.; PELICCI, G.; REBOLDI, P.; PANDOLFI, P. P.; LANFRANCONE, L.; and PELICCI, P. G. "The p66shc Adaptor Protein Controls Oxidative Stress Response and Life Span in Mammals." Nature 402, no. 6759 (1999): 309–313.
PUCA, A. A.; DALY, M. J.; BREWSTER, S. J.; MATISE, T. C.; BARRETT, J.; SHEA-DRINKWATER, M.; KANG, S.; JOYCE, E.; NICOLI, J.; BENSON, E.; KUNKEL, L. M.; and PERLS, T. "A Genome-Wide Scan for Linkage to Human Exceptional Longevity Identifies a Locus on Chromosome 4." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98, no. 18 (2001): 10505–10508.
ROBINE, J. M., and ALLARD, M. "The Oldest Human." Science 279, no. 5358 (1998): 1834–1835.
SINCLAIR, D. A., and GUARENTE, L. "Extrachromosomal Rdna Circles—A Cause of Aging in Yeast." Cell 91, no. 7 (1997): 1033–1042.
TAUB, J.; LAU, J. F.; MA, C.; HAHN, J. H.; HOQUE, R.; ROTHBLATT, J.; and CHALFIE, M. "A Cytosolic Catalase Is Needed to Extend Adult Lifespan in C. elegans daf-C and clk-1 Mutants." Nature 399, no. 6732 (1999): 162–166.
WONG, A.; BOUTIS, P.; and HEKIMI, S. "Mutations in the Clk-1 Gene of Caenorhabditis elegans Affect Developmental and Behavioral Timing." Genetics 139, no. 3 (1995): 1247–1259.
- Genetics: Longevity Assurance - Longevity Assurance Genes In Model Organisms
- Other Free Encyclopedias
Medicine EncyclopediaAging Healthy - Part 2Genetics: Longevity Assurance - Why Do Longevity Genes Exist?, Human Longevity Genes, Longevity Assurance Genes In Model Organisms, Implications