Discovery, Preclinical Testing, Phase I, Phase Ii, Phase Iii, Review By The U.s. Food And Drug AdministrationPhase IV, Time and cost
The road to drug development is a long and demanding process that can take up to 15 years. Before a substance is deemed "safe" it must go through the series of phases shown in Figure 1. These phases are called: discovery; preclinical testing (in animals); phase I; phase II; phase III; review by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); and phase IV.
During Phase IV the drug becomes available for physicians to prescribe, but the manufacturer must continue to submit reports to the FDA that evaluate the effectiveness of the drug, monitor drug interactions, provide data that compare the drug with other drugs that are used for the same purpose, evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the drug, and provide long-term safety and efficacy data. This ongoing monitoring is called post-marketing surveillance.
From discovery to FDA approval of a drug takes about fifteen years and costs about $500 million. From the 5,000 to 10,000 new chemicals that are screened, about two hundred and fifty enter preclinical testing. Of this 250, only five enter clinical testing, and only one is approved and marketed.
M. B. THADANI
See also DRUGS AND AGING; EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE; HERBAL THERAPY.
ANSEL, H. C.; ALLEN, L. V.; and POPOVICH, N. G. Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems, 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
GENNARO, A. R., ed. Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 20th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2000.
GUARINO, R. A., ed. New Drug Approval Process, 3d ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2000.
PATRICK, G. L. An Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995.
THADANI, M. B. Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Uses of Natural Products, 2d ed. Winnipeg: Cantext Publications, 1998.
- Drugs and Aging - Adverse Drug Reactions, Adverse Drug Reactions And Health Care Utilization, Medication Use In The Older Population - Conclusion
- Driving Ability - The Natural Aging Process And Driving Ability, Physical, Perceptual, And Cognitive Function, Self-regulation
- Drug Regulation - Discovery
- Drug Regulation - Preclinical Testing
- Drug Regulation - Phase I
- Drug Regulation - Phase Ii
- Drug Regulation - Phase Iii
- Drug Regulation - Review By The U.s. Food And Drug Administration
- Drug Regulation - Age Factors
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