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Types Of Plasmids, Replication, Use In Research And Technology

Plasmids are naturally occurring, stable genetic elements found in bacteria, fungi, and even in the mitochondria of some plants. They may be composed of DNA or RNA, double-stranded or single-stranded, linear or circular. The transfer gene (tra) makes a protein that binds to the origin of replication site (ori). The protein nicks the DNA, relaxing it and allowing it to be transferred to another cell. Plasmids almost always exist and replicate independently of the chromosome of the cell in which they are found.

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Medicine EncyclopediaGenetics in Medicine - Part 3