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Diversity And Natural Selection, Homology And Computer Analysis, Exploring The Mechanisms Of Mutation, Evolutionary Relatedness

Homology is used to describe two things that share a common evolutionary origin. In genetics and molecular biology, homology means that the sequences of two different genes or two different proteins are so similar that they must have been derived from the same ancestral gene or protein.

The word "homology" has several meanings in biology, each related to the word's origin, meaning "same knowledge." At a molecular level, the term "homology" describes sequences, either DNA or protein, that share a common evolutionary origin. On a larger scale, a pair of chromosomes from a diploid organism that have the same size and shape, are considered homologous chromosomes. Regions of each member of a chromosome pair, which carry the same set of genes, are homologous regions. Finally, physical features with a common evolutionary origin, such as the wing of bat and the hand of a human, are homologous structures.

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Medicine EncyclopediaGenetics in Medicine - Part 2