Other Free Encyclopedias » Medicine Encyclopedia » Genetics in Medicine - Part 3 » Multiple Alleles - Examples Of Multiple Alleles, Polymorphism In Noncoding Dna, Making Use Of Polymorphic Dna

Multiple Alleles - Polymorphism In Noncoding Dna

chromosome differences sequence microsatellite genes differences

It must be realized that although the above two are valid examples, most genes are not multiply allelic but exist only in one or two forms within a population. Most of the DNA sequence variation between individuals arises not because of differences in the genes, but because of differences in the noncoding DNA found between genes.

An example of a noncoding DNA sequence that is extremely abundant in humans is the so-called microsatellite DNA. Microsatellite sequences consist of a small number of nucleotides repeated up to twenty or thirty times. For instance, the microsatellite composed of the dinucleotide AC is very common, appearing about one hundred thousand times throughout the human genome.

The interesting feature about microsatellites is that they are very highly polymorphic for the number of repeat lengths. For example, one particular individual might possess the microsatellite sequence ACACACACAC at a specific locus on one chromosome, and the sequence ACACACACACACACACAC at the same locus on the other homologous chromosome.

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