Other Free Encyclopedias » Medicine Encyclopedia » Genetics in Medicine - Part 1 » Biotechnology and History of Genetic Engineering - Genetic Engineering Versus Biotechnology, Further Advances And Ethical Concerns, Key Technical Developments, Patents And The Rise Of Biotechnology Companies

Biotechnology and History of Genetic Engineering - Genetic Engineering Versus Biotechnology

hybrid restriction enzymes term discovery

For many, the term "biotechnology" is often equated with the manipulation of genes, but, as Ereky's definition suggests, this is only one aspect of biotechnology. For the more specific technique of gene manipulation, the term "genetic engineering" is more appropriate. Genetic engineering dates from the 1970s. At that time molecular biologists devised methods to isolate, identify, and clone genes as well as to mutate, manipulate, and insert them into other species. One of the key elements in such research was the discovery of restriction enzymes. These enzymes are able to cleave DNA at a limited number of sequence-specific sites and often leave "sticky ends." Isolated DNA from any organism could be cleaved with a restriction enzyme and then mixed with a preparation of a vector that had been cleaved with the same restriction endonuclease. By virtue of the "sticky ends," a hybrid Egyptian artwork, dating from between B.C.E. 1550 and 1295, depicts the harvest of the grapes and subsequent counting of the jars of wine. This art suggests that ancient civilizations fermented grape juice to make wine, establishing the basics of a process still used in wineries today. molecule could be created that contained the gene of interest, which could then be inserted into such a cloning vector. The importance of restriction endonucleases was recognized in 1978 by the awarding of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine to Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, and Hamilton Smith for their discovery of these enzymes.

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about 10 years ago

nice, stumbled here.

keep it up