Other Free Encyclopedias » Medicine Encyclopedia » Aging Healthy - Part 4

Yeast

age aging physiological genetic aging life span genes

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known popularly as bakers’ or brewers’ yeast, has been used extensively in aging research. Since 1990, it has emerged as an important model organism for the dissection of the biological aging process at the genetic and molecular levels. Its distant cousin, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, or fission yeast, was shown in 2000 to undergo a very similar aging process. This entry describes the research with S. cerevisiae, hereinafter called yeast, exclusively.

Yeast is a unicellular organism whose DNA is packaged into chromosomes that are localized in a subcellular structure called the nucleus. In addition to this organelle, yeast also possesses mitochondria, which are the power plants of the cell that generate the energy needed for cellular function. The mitochondrion also possesses its own DNA, but it is dependent on the nuclear genes for most of its biochemical functions. The yeast cell is very similar in structure and function to typical cells from higher organisms, including humans. It has been used widely to elucidate a variety of basic biological processes, because of the ease of experimentation. About 25 percent of human genes have yeast counterparts, and these human genes have frequently been shown to functionally replace the corresponding gene in the yeast cell.

Aging is not typically measured by time in yeast, but rather by the number of divisions an individual cell completes before it dies. An individual cell is easy to follow from birth to death because yeast divides asymmetrically by budding off new daughters. Unlike their mothers, the daughters start from scratch, having the potential for a full life span. Thus, individual cells are mortal, while the yeast population is immortal. The probability that a cell will continue dividing decreases exponentially as a function of the number of completed divisions. Thus, mortality rate increases exponentially with age. However, it plateaus at older ages in similarity to what has been observed in other species. Yeasts undergo a variety of changes as they age, and some of these are clearly detrimental. In view of this, it is reasonable to speak of an aging process. In practical terms, yeast life span is measured by observing individual cells periodically under a microscope and removing buds with a micro-manipulator.

As of 2000, twenty genes that determine yeast life span had been identified. This has been achieved in three ways. First, genes whose activity changes during the life span were isolated, followed by an examination of their causal role in yeast aging. Second, genes were tested for their function in longevity on the basis of hypotheses formulated regarding the aging process. Third, yeast mutants were selected on the basis of a phenotype (property) frequently associated with aging. The characterization of the isolated genes has provided a rich description of the aging process at the physiological level. The powerful tools of yeast genetics and cell biology have extended this description. Further analysis of the pathways and processes that were revealed by these genes has in some cases been refined to the biochemical and molecular levels. Methods for the preparation of age-synchronized yeast cells have facilitated biochemical and molecular studies.

There are many advantages to the study of aging in the yeast model system:

  1. The yeast cell is at the same time the yeast organism. Therefore, the study of yeast is pertinent to both cellular and organismal aging.
  2. Because yeast are microbes they divide very rapidly, in a short time generating much material for physiological, biochemical, and molecular analysis.
  3. Yeast mutants can be created and selected rapidly, again because it is a microbe producing many generations of progeny in a short time.
  4. Yeast life spans are short, and last as little as a few days.
  5. Methodologies for life span determination are in place. Several procedures for the bulk preparation of age-synchronized yeast cells are available.
  6. The basic phenomenology of yeast aging is well established.
  7. The yeast genome was the first to be completely sequenced. This has revolutionized yeast genetics. The priority of yeast in this field has resulted in rapid advances in the study of function at the whole genome level, providing a wide range of materials, tools, and concepts that are being applied to other organisms as well.
  8. Several yeast genetic databases are accessible online, which facilitates functional genome analyses. In addition, cross-referencing databases are online, allowing comparative genomic analyses.
  9. A large community of yeast researchers exists, and, consequently, there is a wealth of biological information and expertise that can be tapped.

Yeast also possesses certain disadvantages for aging research: (1) The role of cell-cell interactions and systemic mechanisms, such as endocrine function, in aging lies beyond the scope of yeast aging research; (2) the extent to which the results of studies in yeast can be extrapolated to an understanding of aging in humans has not as yet been demonstrated; and (3) the determination of yeast life spans and the preparation of age-synchronized yeast cells is tedious. The quantities of old yeast that can be obtained are relatively small.

Studies of yeast longevity have revealed the operation of four, broad physiological processes in yeast aging: metabolic control, stress resistance, gene dysregulation, and genetic stability. Interestingly, these processes appear to be important in the aging of other species as well. Two distinct metabolic control mechanisms play a role in yeast aging. One of them (retrograde response) appears to compensate for accumulating mitochondrial dysfunction. The other (caloric restriction) may help prevent dysfunction. Repeated bouts of stress reduce yeast life span. This can be overcome by enhancing the activity of certain longevity genes. An exposure to mild heat stress, on the other hand, appears to condition the yeast such that an extension of longevity occurs. Changes in the structure of the chromatin into which the DNA is packaged result in alterations in the normal activity of genes. This process intensifies with age. It can be prevented by manipulating certain genes, with an attendant increase in life span. Nuclear DNA can undergo rearrangements. Rearrangements that are not normally favored seem to occur with higher frequency as yeasts get older, constituting one of the causes of aging.

S. MICHAL JAZWINSKI

BIBLIOGRAPHY

IMAI, S.-I.; ARMSTRONG, C. M.; KAEBERLEIN, M.; and GUARENTE, L. ‘‘Transcriptional Silencing and Longevity Protein Sir2 Is an NAD-dependent Histone Deacetylase.’’ Nature 403 (2000): 795–800.

JAZWINSKI, S. M. ‘‘Molecular Mechanisms of Yeast Longevity.’’ Trends in Microbiology 7 (1999): 247–252.

JIANG, J. C.; JARUGA, E.; REPNEVSKAYA, M. V.; and JAZWINSKI, S. M. ‘‘An Intervention Resembling Caloric Restriction Prolongs Life Span and Retards Aging in Yeast.’’ The FASEB Journal 14 (2000): 2135–2137.

KIM, S.; BENGURIA, A.; LAI, C.-Y.; and JAZWINSKI, S. M. ‘‘Modulation of Life-span by Histone Deacetylase Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.’’ Molecular Biology of the Cell 10 (1999): 3125–3136.

KIRCHMAN, P. A.; KIM, S.; LAI, C.-Y.; and JAZWINSKI, S. M. ‘‘Interorganelle Signaling Is a Determinant of Longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.’’ Genetics 152 (1999): 179–190.

MORTIMER, R. K., and JOHNSTON, J. R. ‘‘Life Span of Individual Yeast Cells.’’ Nature 183 (1959): 1751–1752.

MÜLLER, I.; ZIMMERMANN, M.; BECKER, D.; and FLÖMER, M. ‘‘Calendar Life Span Versus Budding Life Span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.’’ Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 12 (1980): 47–52.

SINCLAIR, D. A., and GUARENTE, L. ‘‘Molecular Mechanisms of Aging.’’ Trends in Biochemical Sciences 23 (1998): 131–134.

[back] Workforce Issues in Long-Term Care - National Challenges, Makeup Of The Long-term Care Workforce, Characteristics Of The Long-term Care Workforce

User Comments

The following comments are not guaranteed to be that of a trained medical professional. Please consult your physician for advice.

Your email address will be altered so spam harvesting bots can't read it easily.
Hide my email completely instead?

Cancel or

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Thanks for more information about visit this link:
http://www.adword.co.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/
http://www.adword.co.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/
http://www.adword.co.in/packers-and-movers-pune/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Thanks for more information about visit this link:
http://www.adword.co.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
http://www.adword.co.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
http://www.adword.co.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/
http://www.adword.co.in/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Thanks for mour information visit:
http://top3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/
http://top3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
http://top3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-navi-mumbai/
http://top3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-thane/
http://top3th.co.in/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Thanks More for information Visit:
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-gurgaon/
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-delhi/
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-noida/
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-chennai/
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-dwarka/
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-ghaziabad/
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-faridabad/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Thanks for More information Top 3th moving services Visit:
http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/
http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/
http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-noida/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Thanks for More information Export5th in packing services Visit link:
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-hyderabad/
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-mumbai/
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-pune/
http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-bangalore/

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

http://berbedabudi.blogspot.com/
http://sendirilagii.blogspot.com/
http://sendirilagii.blogspot.com/2014/12/sarjanapokercom-agen-judi-poker-online-tanpa-robot.html
http://sendirilagii.blogspot.com/2014/12/ingatpoker-agen-poker-online-terpercaya-dan-terbesar-di-indonesia.html
http://berbedabudi.blogspot.com/2014/12/rajamerahcom-situs-judi-poker-online-terbaik-terpercaya.html
http://berbedabudi.blogspot.com/2014/12/champspoker-online-agen.html
http://berbedabudi.blogspot.com/2014/12/indomasterbolacom-agen-judi-bola-taruhan-bola-terbaik-dan-terpercaya.html

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

http://kokl.net/tradio/index.php?item/511
https://support.hyperic.com/display/~dewapoker/2014/09/25/Dunia+RAJAPOKER88.com+Agen+Texas+Poker+Dan+Domino+Online+Indonesia+Terpercaya
http://softwarelivre.org/masgie/blog
https://seotoolinfo.academia.edu/dewapoker
http://ic.mcu.edu.tw/zh-hant/node/9146
http://softwarelivre.org/masgie/blog
http://www.semesta.org/index.php/login/668-dewa/profile
http://www.suplemenku.com/dewapoker/
http://carnivalscene.com/new2/index.php/jomsocial/47-dewa-poker/profile
http://www.semesta.org/index.php/login/groups/viewgroup/45-kontes-seo-bernuansa-agen-poker-online
http://eweek.nenonline.org/userstory/agen-texas-poker-dan-domino-online-indonesia
http://forums.megaxus.com/showthread.php?162704-Agen-Texas-Poker-Dan-Domino-Online-Indonesia
http://www.campuppet.com/node/172828
http://carnivalscene.com/new2/index.php/jomsocial/groups/viewdiscussion/188-daunpkr-com-agen-poker-domino-online-terbaik?groupid=8
http://meninblack.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:AGENBOLAKAKI/Sang_Raja_Kontes_Dunia_Poker_Online
http://gemsbihar.org/profitconnect1/index.php/jomsocial/groups/viewgroup/49-pokerstar88com-agen-texas-poker-dan-domino-online-indonesia-terpercaya
http://agensbobet.alumni.uii.ac.id/blog-pokerstar88-com-agen-texas-poker-dan-domino-online-indonesia-terpercaya/
http://www.semesta.org/index.php/login/groups/viewgroup/46-kontes-agen-bola-terpercaya-indonesia
http://eweek.nenonline.org/userstory/agen-judi-bola-resmi-taruhan-judi-online
http://forums.megaxus.com/showthread.php?162705-Agen-Judi-Bola-Online-Piala-Dunia
http://www.campuppet.com/node/172825
http://carnivalscene.com/new2/index.php/jomsocial/groups/viewdiscussion/187-agen-judi-togel-dan-casino-online?groupid=8
http://meninblack.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:AGENBOLAKAKI/Kontes_Agen_Judi_Togel_Indonesia
http://forumjitu.com/showthread.php?6107-PokerStar88-com-Agen-Texas-Poker-Dan-Domino-Online-Indonesia-Terpercaya
http://forumjitu.com/showthread.php?6111-855Online-com-Agen-Bola-SBOBET-IBCBET-Casino-338A-Tangkas-Togel-Online-Indonesia
https://ieee-elearning.org/outreach/blog/index.php?postid=5450
http://dofollow.web.id/story.php?title=855online-com-agen-bola-sbobet-ibcbet-casino-338a-tangkas-togel-online-indonesia-terpercaya-
http://dofollow.web.id/story.php?title=pokerstar88-com-agen-texas-poker-dan-domino-online-indonesia-terpercaya-%7C-bunglon-blog
http://diseland.com/story.php?title=seo-855online-com-agen-bola-sbobet-ibcbet-casino-338a-tangkas-togel-online-indonesia-terpercaya
http://diseland.com/story.php?title=joged-pokerstar88-com-agen-texas-poker-dan-domino-online-indonesia-terpercaya
http://www.semesta.org/index.php/login/groups/viewgroup/47-daftar-agen-bola-terbaik-dan-terpopuler-di-indonesia
http://eweek.nenonline.org/userstory/agen-bola-sbobet-indonesia-terhangat
http://forums.megaxus.com/showthread.php?162702-Sang-Master-Agen-Bola-Terpercaya
http://www.campuppet.com/node/172833
http://carnivalscene.com/new2/index.php/jomsocial/groups/viewdiscussion/186-website-casino-sbobet-indonesia?groupid=8
http://meninblack.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:AGENBOLAKAKI/Agen_Bola_Terpercaya_Walibola.com
http://meninblack.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:AGENBOLAKAKI/Antrian_Website_Berbasis_Casino_Sbobet
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/p/tutorial-seo-pokerstar88com-agen-texas.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/10/champs-pokercom.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/10/olb365com-casino.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/10/pasarpokercom-robot.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/10/maubet8com-judi-bola.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/10/itupokernet-agen-judi-domino-99-online.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/06/855onlinecom-agen-bola.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/07/pokerstar88com-indonesia.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/10/pasarpokercom-robot.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/10/maubet8com-judi-bola.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/10/itupokernet-agen-judi-domino-99-online.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/09/web-host.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/09/winpoker.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/07/kakakdewacom-agen-judi-bola.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/09/judi-bola-online-itubolanet.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/09/itucasinonet-agen.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/09/judi-itudomino.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/09/pokerbuayacom-domino.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/09/inipokernet-judi-online.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/06/poker757com-agen-judi-poker-online-indonesia.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/08/jagadpokercom.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/06/daunpokernet-agen-poker.html
http://bunglonblog.blogspot.com/2014/06/bolawin88com.html
http://seosiana.blogspot.com/
http://seosiana.blogspot.com/2014/10/enjin-olb365com.html
http://seosiana.blogspot.com/2014/10/seo-champs-pokercom.html
http://seosiana.blogspot.com/2014/10/pasarpokercom-judi.html
http://seosiana.blogspot.com/2014/10/judi-domino-99-online-itudomino.html
http://seosiana.blogspot.com/2014/10/855onlinecom-ibcbet.html
http://seosiana.blogspot.com/2014/09/pokerstar88com-poker.html
http://seosiana.blogspot.com/2014/09/seo-judi-bola-online-itubolanet.html
http://seosiana.blogspot.com/2014/09/sanggarhostcom-web-hosting-gratis-murah.html
http://vilaseo.blogspot.com/
http://bolakaca.com/sbobet-pokerstar88-com/
http://vilaseo.blogspot.com/2014/10/pasarpokercom-robot.html
http://vilaseo.blogspot.com/2014/07/pokerstar88com-online.html
http://vilaseo.blogspot.com/2014/10/itupoker-net.html
http://vilaseo.blogspot.com/2014/09/bolanet.html
http://www.semesta.org/index.php/login/groups/viewgroup/48-daftar-situs-agen-poker-online-terpercaya-di-indonesia
http://eweek.nenonline.org/userstory/situs-poker-indonesia-terpercaya-indonesia
http://forums.megaxus.com/showthread.php?162703-Situs-Pembuatan-Akun-Poker-Online
http://www.campuppet.com/node/172837
http://carnivalscene.com/new2/index.php/jomsocial/groups/viewdiscussion/185-situs-poker-uang-asli-indonesia?groupid=8
http://meninblack.wikia.com/wiki/User_blog:AGENBOLAKAKI/Menjelajah_Website_Poker_Indonesia
http://h2o.law.harvard.edu/text_blocks/7237
http://forum.lahatkab.go.id/topik-9255-aturan-cara-bermain-poker-di-mahapokercom.html
http://h2o.law.harvard.edu/text_blocks/7236
http://h2o.law.harvard.edu/medias/1376
http://forum.lahatkab.go.id/topik-9254-master-agen-sbobet-tanah-air.html
http://96.30.52.192/showthread.php/1083187-Agen-Bola-Sbobet-Populer-Walibola-com
http://96.30.52.192/member.php/524738-masgie
http://hopeful.ws/arf/member.php?action=viewpro&member=LKorff
http://webmastard.com/member.php?action=viewpro&member=DHovell
http://96.30.52.192/showthread.php/1083193-Sang-Agen-Sbobet-Bolakaca-com
http://forumjitu.com/showthread.php?6108-Agen-Sbobet-Ibcbet-Walibola-com
http://forumjitu.com/showthread.php?6109-Mahapoker-com-Situs-Poker-Uang-Asli
http://forumjitu.com/showthread.php?6110-Situs-Texas-Poker-Indonesia
http://forumjitu.com/showthread.php?6112-Agen-Bola-Tangkas-di-tangkaspro-com
http://www.slideshare.net/agenibcbet
http://www.slideshare.net/agenibcbet/agen-sbobet-walibolacom
http://btd-alpha-x.co.uk/index.php/social-hub/256-agen-sbobet/profile
http://btd-alpha-x.co.uk/index.php/social-hub/groups/viewgroup/203-walibola-com-sang-agen-sbobet-online
http://btd-alpha-x.co.uk/index.php/social-hub/groups/viewgroup/204-agen-poker-online-mahapoker-com
http://gemsbihar.org/profitconnect1/index.php/jomsocial/116-agen-sbobet/profile
http://gemsbihar.org/profitconnect1/index.php/jomsocial/groups/viewgroup/46-sang-dewa-poker-mahapokercom
http://gemsbihar.org/profitconnect1/index.php/jomsocial/groups/viewgroup/47-agen-texas-poker-online-indonesia
http://gemsbihar.org/profitconnect1/index.php/jomsocial/groups/viewgroup/48-profil-walibolacom-agen-sbobet-terbaik
http://gemsbihar.org/profitconnect1/index.php/jomsocial/events/viewevent/74-lomba-seo-berbasis-poker-online?groupid=49
http://gemsbihar.org/profitconnect1/index.php/jomsocial/116-agen-sbobet/photos
http://www.tnol.co.id/komunitas/profile/10880-agensbobet.html
http://www.tnol.co.id/komunitas/groups/viewgroup/1048-cara-bermain-poker.html
http://www.tnol.co.id/komunitas/groups/viewgroup/1049-agen-ibcbet-terpopuler-walibolacom.html
http://www.tnol.co.id/komunitas/groups/viewgroup/1050-texas-holdem-poker-indonesia.html
https://masjie.com/
https://masjie.com/pasarpoker-com-agen-judi-poker-dan-domino-online-tanpa-robot/
https://masjie.com/olb365-com-agen-judi-bola-online-agen-judi-casino-online-indonesia-terpercaya/
https://masjie.com/champspoker-com-agen-poker-online-dan-domino-online-indonesia-terpercaya/
http://www.ligagame.com/forum/index.php/topic,149503.0.html
http://www.ligagame.com/forum/index.php?action=profile;u=381938
http://bedco.org.ls/index.php/network/880-agen-sbobet/profile
http://bedco.org.ls/index.php/network/groups/viewgroup/6-situs-penyedia-game-poker-indonesia
http://bedco.org.ls/index.php/network/groups/viewgroup/7-inilah-agen-zyngapoker-online
http://bedco.org.ls/index.php/network/groups/viewgroup/8-kontes-seo-pokerstar-terbaru
http://bedco.org.ls/index.php/network/groups/viewgroup/9-bonus-dari-walibola-com-agen-sbobet
http://www.tigracon.com/chat/index.php?option=com_community&view=groups&task=viewgroup&groupid=97&Itemid=215
http://www.tigracon.com/chat/index.php?option=com_community&view=groups&task=viewgroup&groupid=98&Itemid=215
https://storify.com/agensbobett/mahapoker-com-agen-poker-online-indonesia
https://storify.com/agensbobett
https://storify.com/agensbobett/promo-walibola-com-agen-bola-sbobet
https://storify.com/agensbobett/promo-walibola-com-agen-ibcbet-online
https://storify.com/agensbobett/promo-walibola-com-agen-bola-sbobet
http://steepster.com/agensbobet
http://agensbobet.alumni.uii.ac.id/
http://agensbobet.alumni.uii.ac.id/memanajemen-game-online-ibcbet/
http://about.me/dewa.poker
https://ieee-elearning.org/outreach/blog/index.php?userid=41200
https://ieee-elearning.org/outreach/blog/index.php?postid=5448
https://ieee-elearning.org/outreach/blog/index.php?postid=5446
https://ieee-elearning.org/outreach/blog/index.php?postid=5449
http://elearning.undwi.ac.id/blog/index.php?postid=1330
https://masjie.com/
https://masjie.com/champspoker-com-agen-poker-online-dan-domino-online-indonesia-terpercaya/
https://masjie.com/pasarpoker-com-agen-judi-poker-dan-domino-online-tanpa-robot/
http://itulink.com/showthread.php?6010-Situs-Para-Dewa-Poker-Online-Indonesia
http://itulink.com/showthread.php?6011-Trik-Jitu-Bermain-Texas-Holdem-Poker-di-Agen-Poker-Online
http://itulink.com/showthread.php?6012-Perkenalkan-Profil-Agen-Ibcbet-Terbaru-Walibola-com
http://itulink.com/showthread.php?6013-Agen-Bola-Agen-Sbobet-Agen-Ibcbet-Bolakca-com
http://itulink.com/showthread.php?6014-Ligabebek-com-Agen-Bola-Terpercaya-Agen-Sbobet-Casino-Sbobet
http://elearning.unsrat.ac.id/old/blog/index.php?postid=13
http://elearning.unsrat.ac.id/old/blog/index.php?postid=14
http://www.heyabigail.com/my-profile/433-agen-sbobet.html
http://www.heyabigail.com/the-hangout/groups/viewgroup/37-agen-ibcbet-terbesar-indonesia-walibolacom.html
http://www.heyabigail.com/the-hangout/groups/viewgroup/38-bonus-legit-agen-poker-indonesia-mahapokercom.html
http://agensbobetku.kinja.com/agen-bola-sbobet-dan-agen-ibcbet-online-terbesar-1646608655
http://agensbobetku.kinja.com/
http://agensbobetku.kinja.com/website-texas-holdem-poker-dari-indonesia-1646614520
http://agensbobetku.kinja.com/daftar-situs-berbasis-agen-sbobet-dan-ibcbet-berbahasa-1646621005
http://agensbobetku.kinja.com/headline-pokerstar88-com-agen-texas-poker-dan-domino-on-1646630590
http://www.dofollow.web.id/story.php?title=agen-bola-%7C-agen-ibcbet-%7C-agen-sbobet
http://www.dofollow.web.id/story.php?title=agen-bola-agen-sbobet-agen-ibcbet
http://www.dofollow.web.id/story.php?title=dewa-poker-agen-poker-poker-online
http://www.dofollow.web.id/story.php?title=agen-poker-poker-online-dewa-poker
http://www.dofollow.web.id/story.php?title=situs-agen-bola-terpercaya-bola-tangkas-casino-sbobet
http://dofollow.web.id/story.php?title=cara-bermain-poker-di-maha-poker
http://diseland.com/story.php?title=agen-bola-agen-ibcbet-agen-sbobet
http://diseland.com/story.php?title=sang-agen-bola-agen-sbobet-agen-ibcbet
http://diseland.com/story.php?title=blog-dewa-poker-agen-poker-poker-online
http://diseland.com/story.php?title=texas-holdem-poker-dan-zyngapoker-online
http://diseland.com/story.php?title=agen-bola-terpercaya-bola-tangkas-casino-sbobet
http://diseland.com/story.php?title=cara-bermain-poker-maha-poker
http://poshpro.com/story.php?title=agen-ibcbet-terbesar-walibola-com
http://poshpro.com/story.php?title=bonus-dari-agen-sbobet-bolakaca-com
http://poshpro.com/story.php?title=agen-poker-uang-asli-mahapoker-com
http://poshpro.com/story.php?title=tips-cara-bermain-poker-online
http://poshpro.com/story.php?title=games-poker-dari-agen-holdem-poker-online
http://poshpro.com/story.php?title=agen-bola-terpercaya-ligabebek-com
http://poshpro.com/story.php?title=link-855online-com-agen-bola-sbobet-ibcbet-casino-338a-tangkas-togel-online-indonesia-terpercaya
http://poshpro.com/story.php?title=news-pokerstar88-com-agen-texas-poker-dan-domino-online-indonesia-terpercaya
http://cardho.com/story.php?title=dunia-agen-sbobet-online-bersama-walibola-com
http://cardho.com/story.php?title=agen-bola-%7C-agen-sbobet-%7C-agen-ibcbet
http://cardho.com/story.php?title=sang-agen-dewa-poker-online-indonesia
http://cardho.com/story.php?title=tutorial-cara-bermain-poker
http://cardho.com/story.php?title=agen-zyngapoker-indonesia-terpercaya
http://cardho.com/story.php?title=situs-agen-bola-tangkas-terpercaya
http://cardho.com/story.php?title=855online-com-agen-bola-sbobet-ibcbet-casino-338a-tangkas-togel-online-indonesia-terpercaya
http://cardho.com/story.php?title=pokerstar88-com-agen-texas-poker-dan-domino-online-indonesia-terpercaya-%7C-bunglon-blog
http://savinges.com/story.php?title=agen-bola-%7C-agen-ibcbet-%7C-agen-sbobet
http://savinges.com/story.php?title=agen-bola-%7C-agen-sbobet-%7C-agen-ibcbet
http://savinges.com/story.php?title=tips-bertaruh-di-meja-judi-bersama-agen-sbobet-terpopuler-
http://savinges.com/story.php?title=dewa-poker-%7C-agen-poker-%7C-poker-online
http://savinges.com/story.php?title=cara-bermain-poker-maha-poker
http://savinges.com/story.php?title=agen-texas-holdem-poker-online-indonesia
http://savinges.com/story.php?title=agen-bola-terpercaya-%7C-bola-tangkas-%7C-casino-sbobet
http://savinges.com/story.php?title=855online-com-agen-bola-sbobet-ibcbet-casino-338a-tangkas-togel-online-indonesia-terpercaya-2
http://savinges.com/story.php?title=pokerstar88-com-agen-texas-poker-dan-domino-online-indonesia-terpercaya
http://zonasubmit.web.id/entries/view/331638/sepakbola/agen-bola-agen-ibcbet-agen-sbobet.html
http://zonasubmit.web.id/entries/view/331639/sepakbola/agen-bola-agen-sbobet-agen-ibcbet.html
http://zonasubmit.web.id/entries/view/331640/pc/texas-poker-zyngapoker-poker-dewa.html
http://zonasubmit.web.id/entries/view/331641/gadget/sanggarhost-com-web-hosting-gratis-murah-terbaik-dan-berkualitas-di-indonesia.html
http://zonasubmit.web.id/entries/view/331642/pc/cara-bermain-poker.html
http://cepatnya.info/entries/view/560547/sepakbola/agen-bola-agen-ibcbet-agen-sbobet.html
http://cepatnya.info/entries/view/560548/sepakbola/agen-bola-agen-sbobet-agen-ibcbet.html
http://cepatnya.info/entries/view/560550/sepakbola/dewa-poker-agen-poker-poker-online.html
http://cepatnya.info/entries/view/560552/pc/agen-poker-online-terpercaya.html
http://www.perdetik.com/entries/view/475405/sepakbola/agen-bola-agen-ibcbet-agen-sbobet.html
http://www.perdetik.com/entries/view/475406/sepakbola/agen-bola-agen-sbobet-agen-ibcbet.html
http://www.perdetik.com/entries/view/475407/pc/tips-bertaruh-di-meja-judi-bersama-agen-sbobet-terpopuler.html
http://www.perdetik.com/entries/view/475408/pc/dewa-poker-agen-poker-poker-online.html
http://www.perdetik.com/entries/view/475409/pc/agen-zyngapoker-holdem-poker-games-poker.html
http://www.gamedesire.com/player/agensbobet
http://www.gamedesire.com/player/agensbobet/blog/1544166
http://www.gamedesire.com/player/agensbobet/blog/1544829
http://www.gamedesire.com/player/agensbobet/blog/1545094
http://kreepykastle.com/thedungeon/members/agensbobet/
http://kreepykastle.com/thedungeon/groups/user-agen-bola-sbobet-online-indonesia/
http://www.sba.gov/users/agensbobet
https://independent.academia.edu/AgenSbobet2
http://genius.com/agensbobet
http://x.genius.com/Agensbobet-walibolacom-sang-master-sbobet-annotated
http://www.stumbleupon.com/stumbler/agensbobetku?_notoolbar&_nospa=true
http://agensbobetku.blogdetik.com/
http://www.lautanindonesia.com/blog/agensbobetku
http://agensbobetku.blogdetik.com/layanan-terbaik-dari-agen-sbobet-dan-ibcbet-online-indonesia/
http://www.lautanindonesia.com/blog/agensbobetku/blog/43082/tips-memilih-situs-layanan-agen-sbobet-dan-ibcbet-online-indonesia
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/agensbobet
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/agensbobet/V1WbQF9H7ds
https://groups.google.com/forum/?hl=id#!topic/agensbobet/Xd2lfXXyGP8
https://groups.google.com/forum/?hl=id#!topic/agensbobet/dHxrcNbs0p0
https://groups.google.com/forum/?hl=id#!topic/agensbobet/tB4kjBK7Fmc
https://delicious.com/agensbobett
https://vimeo.com/user33973422
http://agensbobetku.tumblr.com/
http://id.linkedin.com/pub/agen-sbobet/a7/a19/621
http://www.emicromaryland.com/component/community/profile?userid=443
http://showmatch.it/community/3511-agensbobet/profile
http://showmatch.it/community/all-communities/viewgroup/324-agen-game-ibcbet-online-walibola-com
http://showmatch.it/community/all-communities/viewgroup/325-play-game-poker-online-di-internet
http://showmatch.it/community/all-communities/viewgroup/326-live-online-agen-judi-bola-indonesia
http://www.atheistattraction.com/index.php/my-profile/5053-agen-sbobet
http://www.atheistattraction.com/index.php/groups/viewgroup/7-link-external-to-visit
http://africancontacts.com/myprofile/agensbobet.html
http://africancontacts.com/dating-profiles/groups/viewgroup/105-Sang+Walibolacom+Agen+Ibcbet+Indonesia.html
http://thatguywiththeglasses.com/community/profile/136521-agensbobet http://walibola.com Agen Ibcbet http://bolakaca.com Agen Sbobet http://www.mahapoker.com Agen poker mahapoker.com/support/carabermain.html
http://the-infinitygroup.com Texas Poker http://ligabebek.com Agen Bola Terpercaya http://www.agenbolakaki.com Agen Bola Online http://mahabola.com http://judikita.com http://tangkaspro.com
http://friendfeed.com/agensbobet2
https://www.facebook.com/agenibcbetsbobet
http://artbistro.monster.com/member/agensbobet
http://www.last.fm/user/agensbobet
http://www.last.fm/event/3989936+Bonus+Ibcbet+Online
http://agensbobet.skyrock.com/profil/
http://agensbobet.skyrock.com/
https://www.diigo.com/user/agensbobetku
http://www.fairportbeach.com/our-community/54-agen-sbobet/profile.html
http://www.fairportbeach.com/our-community/groups/viewgroup/29-bonus-pendaftaran-agen-ibcbet-walibola-com.html
http://www.fairportbeach.com/our-community/groups/viewgroup/30-metode-cara-bermain-poker-terbaik.html
http://www.fairportbeach.com/our-community/groups/viewgroup/31-agen-bola-online-dan-agen-bola-sbobet-terpercaya.html
https://profile.yahoo.com/K43QNS7EC5XBZL4QSJAEZHFDH4/
http://wpshower.com/forums/showthread.php?t=25297
http://www.boards2go.com/boards/board.cgi?action=read&id=1415159027.99274&user=bombat
http://www.boards2go.com/boards/board.cgi?action=read&id=1415159378.88576&user=bombat
http://www.boards2go.com/boards/board.cgi?action=read&id=1415159546.58506&user=bombat
http://prague.tv/users/profile.php?who=agensbobet
https://madmimi.com/s/70f285
https://madmimi.com/p/7df285
https://plus.google.com/103492548385039909493/posts/XxigiUJH7dE
https://plus.google.com/103492548385039909493/posts/a37CwXP4gSX
http://healthylifestyleku.blogspot.com/
PokerStar88.com Agen Texas Poker Dan Domino Online Indonesia Terpercaya http://healthylifestyleku.blogspot.com/2014/11/pokerstar88com-agen-texas-poker-dan-domino-online-indonesia-terpercaya.html
https://plus.google.com/103492548385039909493/posts/XxigiUJH7dE
https://plus.google.com/103492548385039909493/posts/a37CwXP4gSX