Other Free Encyclopedias » Medicine Encyclopedia » Aging Healthy - Part 3 » Physiological Changes: Stem Cells - Embryonic Development And Mesengenesis, Adult Tissues, Bone Repair, Mesenchymal Stem Cell Numbers, Mesenchymal Stem Cells And Future Aging Therapies

Physiological Changes: Stem Cells - Mesenchymal Stem Cells And Future Aging Therapies

blood tissue caplan culture

If one of the major causes of mesenchymal tissue aging is the decreased availability of mesenchymal stem cells, an obvious quick-fix would be to obtain some marrow, and then isolate and culture-expand the mesenchymal stem cells. It has been shown that mesenchymal stem cells can be culture-expanded one billion-fold without affecting their differentiation potential. With this large number of cells, it would seem possible to merely add these cultured mesenchymal stem cells back to blood-stream marrow and other sites serviced by the blood supply, and thereby raise the body level of mesenchymal stem cells. However, although some mesenchymal stem cells that are put back into the blood stream do make it back into the marrow compartment, relatively few do so. Consequently, increasing the body's load of mesenchymal stem cells requires understanding how the cells target to particular locations along the blood-vessel pathways, and then to efficiently transport the cell through the wall of the blood vessel into the tissue. Alternately, by genetically adjusting the mesenchymal stem cells in culture to fix or replace mutated genes, it may be possible to improve the fabrication capacity of the differentiated progeny to maintain tissue integrity and counteract aging-related tissue destruction. Even if these therapeutic approaches fail, it is clear that management of mesenchymal stem cells can have profound effects upon the aging process.

ARNOLD I. CAPLAN

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CAPLAN, A. I. "Mesenchymal Stem Cells." J. Ortho. Res. 9 (1991): 641–650.

CAPLAN, A. I. "The Mesengenic Process." In Clinics in Plastic Surgery 21 (1994): 429–435.

HAYNESWORTH, S. E.; GOLDBERG, V. M.; and CAPLAN, A. I. "Diminution of the Number of Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Cause for Skeletal Aging." In Musculoskeletal Soft-Tissue Aging: Impact on Mobility. Edited by J. A. Buckwalter, V. M. Goldberg, and S. L-Y. Woo. Rosemont, Ill.: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1994. Pages 79–87.

HAYNESWORTH, S. E.; REUBEN, D.; and CAPLAN, A. I. "Cell-based Tissue Engineering Therapies: The Influence of Whole Body Physiology." Advanced Drug Delivery Review 33 (1999): 3–14.

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