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Nursing Homes - Conclusion

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Nursing facilities continue to serve a vital role within the long-term care system, even as they struggle to deal with a number of issues ranging from delivering quality care to adequate reimbursement. The frenetic pace of change is driven by the dynamic environment in which they operate, which seems destined to continue to bring more and more uncertainty to the role they will play in the long-term care system in the future. The recent Nursing Home Initiative by CMS has helped to continue focusing attention on addressing nursing-home quality and on minimum staffing ratios. Whatever the future holds for nursing facilities, one thing seems certain: if they are to survive and prosper, they will have to continue to evolve to meet the ever-changing needs of the residents they serve and to find funding mechanisms to adequately support the services they provide.

THOMAS J. FAIRCHILD JANICE A. KNEBL

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Institutional Highlights Digest. Managed Care Digest Series, 2000.

American Health Care Association. Facts and Trends 1999: The Nursing Facility Sourcebook. Washington, D.C.: ACHA, 1999.

Congressional Budget Office. Projections of Expenditures for Long-Term Care Services for the Elderly. CBO, 1999. Available at www.cbo.gov/

FAIRCHILD, T. J.; KNEBL, J. A.; and BURGOS, D. "The Complex Long-Term Care Service System in Matching People with Services." In Long-Term Care. Edited by Zev Harel and Ruth Dunkle. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1995.

GABREL, C. S. An Overview of Nursing Home Facilities: Data from the 1997 National Nursing Home Survey. Hyattsville, Md.: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 2000.

HEFFLER, S.; LEVIT, K.; et al. "Health Spending Growth Up in 1999; Faster Growth Expected in the Future." Health Affairs 20, no. 3 (2001).

MANTON, K. G., and GU, X. "Changes in the Prevalence of Chronic Disability in the United States Black and Nonblack Population above Age 65 from 1982 to 1999." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Early Edition. 8 May 2001. Available at www.pnas.org

National Institute on Aging. Progress Report on Alzheimer's Disease 1999. Silver Spring, Md.: Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center.

SAHYOUN, N. R.; PRATT, L. A.; et.al. The Changing Profile of Nursing Home Residents: 1985–1997. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001.

SINGH, D. A., and SCHWAB, R. C. "Predicting Turnover and Retention in Nursing Home Administrators: Management and Policy Implications." The Gerontologist 40, no. 3 (2000): 310–319.

WUNDERLICH, G. S., and KOHLER, P. O., eds. Improving the Quality of Long-Term Care. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press,. 2001.

U.S. Census Bureau. "Nursing Home Residents 65 Years Old and Over by Selected Characteristics: 1997." In Statistical Abstracts of the United States, 2000. Washington, D.C.: Census Bureau.

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